In the ongoing debate concerning the scope of Christ's redemptive work on the cross, some have chosen to ignore the all-inclusiveness of what the Scriptures have to say about His Atonement. Since His sacrifice is pictured in the Old Testament Feast of the Atonement, that is probably a good place to begin in trying to understand whether or not the sacrifice was for a select group, or for all of Israel.
Leviticus 16:1-34; 23:27-32, Numbers 29:7-11, and Hebrews 9:7-12, discuss the sixth feast of Israel, and we learn several important factors concerning who is covered by the sacrifice. 1) It was for "the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins" (Lev. 16:16). 2) While it involves repentance, it does not allow any work (Lev. 23:31-32; Num. 29:7). 3) The high priest offered a blood sacrifice for the errors of his people (Heb. 9:7). 4) The Old Testament feast was a picture of what Jesus did for our sin (Heb. 9:9). 5) Jesus, "by His own blood He entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption for us" (Heb. 9:12).
So, what does that mean? The sacrifice was for all Israel, but some could reject it by failing to repent (afflict themselves, and do no work - Lev. 16:29). The Atonement was for all Israel, and the Lord's sacrifice was for all of mankind (Jn. 3:16; 1 Jn. 2:2)!
ALL TAKE NOTE:
ALL have sinned (Rom. 3:23). ALL we like sheep have gone astray, but the Lord has laid on Him the iniquity of us ALL (Isa. 53:6). The grace of God has appeared unto ALL men (Titus 2:11). A Saviour has been provided for ALL people (Lk. 2:10-11). Salvation has been made possible for ALL (Jn. 3:16-17) and Jesus Christ is the Saviour of ALL men (1 Tim. 4:10). God desires ALL to be saved (1 Tim. 2:3-4) and the Saviour died for ALL (1 Tim. 2:6; 1 Jn. 2:2). Thus the Gospel message is for ALL (Mk. 16:15) and God’s gracious invitation is extended to ALL (Rom. 10:13; Rev. 22:17). ALL men everywhere are commanded to repent (Acts 17:30). ALL men from ALL nations are commanded to believe the Gospel (Rom. 1:5; 16:26). Christians are commanded to go to ALL men and to beseech them to be reconciled to God (2 Cor. 5:19-20). Yes, the ALL includes you and me. Will you personally receive Christ as your Lord and Savior, or will you personally reject ALL that the living God has done for you?
"But as many as received Him [Christ], to them gave He power to become the [children] of God, even to them that believe on His Name" (John 1:12).