The context for Luke 21:24, is the Lord's teaching known as the Olivet Discourse (Mt. 24; Mk. 13; Lk. 21). Jesus was teaching His disciples about three things: the destruction of the Temple, His return, and the end of the world (the Greek αἰών (aiōn), is better translated "age"). The Romans would destroy the Temple in A.D. 70. Since then, there has never been a time when the entire city of Jerusalem has been controlled by the Jewish people. Some believe the Six Day War (1967) ended Gentile control, but ironically, the one place in Jerusalem still controlled by Gentiles is the Temple Mount!
I believe the Olivet Discourse is primarily Christ's teaching the conditions in Israel at His Second Coming. That being the case, it is not possible that the phrase "times of the Gentiles" could be referring to the Church Age. First of all, the context is totally focused upon the Jews in Israel (The Temple, Jerusalem, Judaea, and persecution being carried out in the synagogues - Mk. 13:9). From the description, it has to be during the first half of the Tribulation (a.k.a. Daniel's Seventieth Week, and The Time of Jacob's Trouble - Dan. 9:27; Jer. 30:7). The antichrist's protection for the first half of the seven-year peace agreement, is the setting, as Matthew 24:29 begins with "Immediately after the tribulation of those days...." That means the control of Jerusalem will be "trodden down" by the Gentiles.
Another reason the "times of the Gentiles" can not refer to the Church Age, is because the Church Age has already ended with the Rapture of the Church when the events of the Olivet Discourse take place. Jesus promised the Church that He would come for us, and we will meet Him in the clouds (Jn. 14:1-3; 1 Cor. 15:50-54; 1 Thes. 4:13-18)! The seven-year Tribulation is known as the time of God's Wrath; He will pour out His wrath on "the children of disobedience" (Jn. 3:36; Eph. 5:6; Col. 3:6). The "children" refers to Israel, and they will experience His wrath because they rejected His Son! The Church is not appointed to experience God's wrath (1 Thes. 5:9)!
IT WOULD BE SO FITTING FOR CHRIST TO COME FOR HIS CHURCH
ON PENTECOST SUNDAY! COME LORD JESUS!!!!!!!